1986-1995 Publications

 

1995

 

Andersen, B. L., Cacioppo, J. T., & Roberts, D. C. (1995). Delay in seeking a cancer diagnosis: Delay stages and psychophysiological comparison processes. British Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 33-52. PM ID number: 7735731.

 

Berntson, G. G., Cacioppo, J. T., & Quigley, K. S. (1995). The metrics of cardiac chronotropism: Biometric perspectives. Psychophysiology, 32, 162-171.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Berg, W. K., Berntson, G. G., Bradley, M. M., Carroll, D., Davidson, R. J., Giard, M., Hobson, J. A., Holcomb, P. J., Hugdahl, K., Iacono, W., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Knight, R. T., Light, K., & Miller, G. A. (1995). Editorial. Psychophysiology, 32, 1-3.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Malarkey, W. B., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Uchino, B. N., Sgoutas-Emch, S. A., Sheridan, J. F., Berntson, G. G., & Glaser, R. (1995). Heterogeneity in neuroendocrine and immune responses to brief psychological stressors as a function of autonomic cardiac activation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 57, 154-164.

 

Crites, S. L. Jr., Cacioppo, J. T., Gardner, W. L., & Berntson, G. G. (1995). Bioelectrical echoes from evaluative categorization: II. A late positive brain potential that varies as a function of attitude registration rather than attitude report. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 997-1013.

 

Gardner, W. L., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1995). Multi-gallon blood donors: Why do they give? Transfusion, 35, 795-798.

 

Malarkey, W. B., Lipkus, I. M., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1995). The dissociation of catecholamine and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to daily stressors using dexamethasone. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 80, 2458-2463.

 

Uchino, B. N., Cacioppo, J. T., Malarkey, W. B., & Glaser, R. (1995). Individual differences in cardiac sympathetic control predict endocrine and immune responses to acute psychological stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 736-743.

 

Uchino, B. N., Cacioppo, J. T., Malarkey, W. B., Glaser, R., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (1995). Appraisal support predicts age-related differences in cardiovascular function in women. Health Psychology, 14, 556-562. 

 

1994

 

Berntson, G. G., Cacioppo, J. T., Binkley, P. F., Uchino, B. N., Quigley, K. S., & Fieldstone, A. (1994). Autonomic cardiac control. III. Psychological stress and cardiac response in autonomic space as revealed by pharmacological blockades. Psychophysiology, 31, 599-608.

 

Berntson, G. G., Cacioppo, J. T., & Quigley, K. S. (1994). Autonomic cardiac control. I. Estimation and validation from pharmacological blockades. Psychophysiology, 31, 572-585.

 

Berntson, G. G., Cacioppo, J. T., Quigley, K. S., & Fabro, V. T. (1994). Autonomic space and psychophysiological response. Psychophysiology, 31, 44-61.

 

Berntson, G. G., Uchino, B. N., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1994). Origins of baseline variance and the law of initial values. Psychophysiology, 31, 204-210.

 

Cacioppo, J. T. (1994). Social neuroscience: Autonomic, neuroendocrine, and immune responses to stress. Psychophysiology, 31, 113-128.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., & Berntson, G. G. (1994). Relationship between attitudes and evaluative space: A critical review, with emphasis on the separability of positive and negative substrates. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 401-423.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Berntson, G. G., Binkley, P. F., Quigley, K. S., Uchino, B. N., & Fieldstone, A. (1994). Autonomic cardiac control. II. Noninvasive indices and baseline response as revealed by autonomic blockades. Psychophysiology, 31, 586-598.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Crites, S. L. Jr., Gardner, W. L., & Berntson, G. G. (1994). Bioelectrical echoes from evaluative categorizations: I. A late positive brain potential that varies as a function of trait negativity and extremity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 115-125.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Petty, R. E., & Crites, S. L. Jr. (1994). Attitude change. In V. S. Ramachandran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (pp. 261-270). San Diego: Academic Press.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Petty, R. E., Losch, M. E., & Crites, S. L. (1994). Psychophysiological approaches to attitudes: Detecting affective dispositions when people won't say, can't say, or don't even know. In S. Shavitt & T. C. Brock (Eds.), Persuasion: Psychological insights and perspectives (pp. 43-69). New York: Allyn & Bacon.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Uchino, B. N., & Berntson, G. G. (1994). Individual differences in the autonomic origins of heart rate reactivity: The psychometrics of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and preejection period. Psychophysiology, 31, 412-419.

 

Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Rapson, R. L. (1994). Emotional contagion. New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Malarkey, W., Cacioppo, J. T., & Glaser, R. (1994). Stressful personal relationships: Immune and endocrine function. In R. Glaser & J. K. Kiecolt-Glaser (Eds.), Handbook of human stress and immunity (pp. 321-339). San Diego: Academic Press.

 

Kintsch. W., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1994). Introduction to the 100th anniversary issue of the Psychological Review. Psychological Review, 101, 195-199.

 

Petty, R. E., Cacioppo, J. T., Strathman, A., & Priester, J. R. (1994). To think or not to think: Exploring two routes to persuasion. In S. Shavitt & T. C. Brock (Eds.), Persuasion: Psychological insights and perspectives (pp. 113-147). New York: Allyn & Bacon.

 

Sgoutas-Emch, S. A., Cacioppo, J. T., Uchino, B. N., Malarkey, W., Pearl, D., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., & Glaser, R. (1994). The effects of an acute psychological stressor on cardiovascular, endocrine, and cellular immune response: A prospective study of individuals high and low in heart rate reactivity. Psychophysiology, 31, 264-271.

 

Uchino, B. N., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1994). Construals of preillness relationship quality predict cardiovascular response in family caregivers of Alzheimer's disease victims. Psychology and Aging, 9, 113-120.

 

1993

 

Berntson, G. G., Boysen, S. T., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1993). Neurobehavioral organization and the cardinal principle of evaluative bivalence. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 702, 75-102.

 

Berntson, G. G., Cacioppo, J. T., & Quigley, K. S. (1993). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia: Autonomic origins, physiological mechanisms, and psychophysiological implications. Psychophysiology, 30, 183-196.

 

Berntson, G. G., Cacioppo, J. T., & Quigley, K. S. (1993). Cardiac psychophysiology and autonomic space in humans: Empirical perspectives and conceptual implications. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 296-322.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Crites, S. L. Jr., Berntson, G. G., & Coles, M. G. H. (1993). If attitudes affect how stimuli are processed, should they not affect the event-related brain potential? Psychological Science,4, 108-112.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., & Gardner, W. L. (1993). What underlies medical donor attitudes and behavior? Health Psychology, 12, 269-271.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Klein, D. J., Berntson, G. G., & Hatfield, E. (1993). The psychophysiology of emotion. In R. Lewis & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), The handbook of emotion (pp. 119-142). New York: Guilford Press. 

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Priester, J. R., & Berntson, G. G. (1993). Rudimentary determinants of attitudes. II: Arm flexion and extension have differential effects on attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 5-17.

 

Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Rapson, R. L. (1993). Emotional contagion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2, 96-99.

 

Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Malarkey, W. B., Chee, M. A., Newton, T., Cacioppo, J. T., Mao, H., & Glaser, R. (1993). Negative behavior during marital conflict is associated with immunological down-regulation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55, 395-409.

 

Petty, R. E., Wegener, D. T., Fabrigar, L. R., Priester, J. R., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1993). Conceptual and methodological issues in the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion: A reply to the Michigan State critics. Communication Theory, 3, 336-362. 

 

1992

 

Berntson, G. G., Quigley, K. S., Fabro, V. J., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1992). Vagal stimulation and cardiac chronotropy in rats. Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, 41, 221-226.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., & Berntson, G. G. (1992). Social psychological contributions to the decade of the brain: Doctrine of multilevel analysis. American Psychologist, 47, 1019-1028.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., & Berntson, G. G. (1992). The principles of multiple, nonadditive, and reciprocal determinism: Implications for social psychological research and levels of analysis. In D. Ruble, P. Costanzo, & M. Oliveri (Eds.), The social psychology of mental health: Basic mechanisms and applications (pp. 328-349). New York: Guilford Press.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Berntson, G. G., & Klein, D. J. (1992). What is an emotion? The role of somatovisceral afference, with special emphasis on somatovisceral "illusions." Review of Personality and Social Psychology, 14, 63-98.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Bush, L. K., & Tassinary, L. G. (1992). Microexpressive facial actions as a function of affective stimuli: Replication and extension. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18, 515-526.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., & Crites, S. L. (1992). Psychological contributions to cognitive theory: Book review of the Handbook of cognitive psychophysiology by J. R. Jennings & M. G. H. Coles (Editors). Contemporary Psychology, 37, 1256-1257.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Marshall-Goodell, B. S., Tassinary, L. G., & Petty, R. E. (1992). Rudimentary determinants of attitudes: Classical conditioning is more effective when prior knowledge about the attitude stimulus is low than high. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 28, 207-233.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Uchino, B. N., Crites, S. L., Jr. Snydersmith, M. A., Smith, G., Berntson, G. G., & Lang, P. J. (1992). Relationship between facial expressiveness and sympathetic activation in emotion: A critical review, with emphasis on modeling underlying mechanisms and individual differences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 110-128.

 

Davidson, R., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1992). New developments in the scientific study of emotion: An introduction to the special section. Psychological Science, 3, 21-22.

 

Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Rapson, R. L. (1992). Primitive emotional contagion. Review of Personality and Social Psychology, 14, 151-177.

 

Haugtvedt, C. P., Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1992). Need for cognition and advertising: Understanding the role of personality variables in consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 1, 239-260.

 

Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Cacioppo, J. T., Malarkey, W. B., & Glaser, R. (1992). Acute psychological stressors and short-term immune changes: What, why, for whom, and to what extent? Psychosomatic Medicine, 54, 680-685.

 

Petty, R. E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Haugtvedt, C. (1992). Ego-involvement and persuasion: An appreciative look at the Sherif's contribution to the study of self-relevance and attitude change. In D. Granberg & G. Sarup (Eds.), Social judgment and intergroup relations: Essays in honor of Muzafer Sherif (pp. 147-175). New York: Springer-Verlag.

 

Snydersmith, M. A., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1992). Parsing complex social factors to determine component effects: I. Autonomic activity and reactivity as a function of human association. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 11, 263-278.

 

Tassinary, L. G., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1992). Unobservable facial actions and emotion. Psychological Science, 3, 28-33.

 

Uchino, B. N., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1992). Age-related changes in cardiovascular response as a function of a chronic stressor and social support. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 839-846. 

 

1991

 

Berntson, G. G., Boysen, S. T., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1991). Cardiac orienting and defensive responses: Potential origins in autonomic space. In B. A. Campbell (Ed.), Attention and information processing in infants and adults (pp. 163-200). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

 

Berntson, G. G., Cacioppo, J. T., & Quigley, K. S. (1991). Autonomic determinism: The modes of autonomic control, the doctrine of autonomic space, and the laws of autonomic constraint. Psychological Review, 98, 459-487.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Berntson, G. G., & Andersen, B. L. (1991). Psychophysiological approaches to the evaluation of psychotherapeutic process and outcome, 1991: Contributions from social psychophysiology. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 3, 321-336.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Claiborn, C. D., Petty, R. E., & Heesacker, M. (1991). A general framework for the study of attitude change in psychotherapy. In C. R. Snyder & D. R. Forsyth (Eds.), Handbook of social and clinical psychology: The health perspective (pp. 523-539). New York: Pergamon Press, Inc.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., & Petty, R. E. (1991). Psicofisiologia sociale. In L. Stegagno (Ed.), Psicofisiologia (pp. 220-246). Turin, Italy: Boringhieri Publishers.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Petty, R. E., & Berntson, G. G. (1991). Persuasion. In R. Dulbecco (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human biology, Volume 5 (pp. 799-810). Orlando, FL: Academic Press. 

 

1990

 

Andersen, B. L., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1990). Secondary and tertiary prevention: Psychophysiological comparison theory and its role in understanding patient delay. Cancer Prevention, 1, 122-126.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Rourke, P. A., Marshall-Goodell, B. S., Tassinary, L. G., & Baron, R. S. (1990). Rudimentary physiological effects of mere observation. Psychophysiology, 27, 177-186.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., & Tassinary, L. G. (1990). Centenary of William James's Principles of Psychology: From the chaos of mental life to the science of psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 16, 601-611.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., & Tassinary, L. G. (1990). Inferring psychological significance from physiological signals. American Psychologist, 45, 16-28.

 

Cacioppo, J. T. & Tassinary, L. G. (1990). Principles of psychophysiology: Physical, social, and inferential elements. New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., & Tassinary, L. G. (1990). Psychophysiology and psychophysiological inference. In J. T. Cacioppo and L. G. Tassinary (Eds.), Principles of psychophysiology: Physical, social, and inferential elements (pp. 3-33). New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Tassinary, L. G., & Fridlund, A. F. (1990). The skeletomotor system. In J. T. Cacioppo and L. G. Tassinary (Eds.), Principles of psychophysiology: Physical, social, and inferential elements (pp. 325-384). New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

Dorfman, D. D., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1990). Waveform moment analysis: Topographical analysis of nonrhythmic waveforms. In J. T. Cacioppo and L. G. Tassinary (Eds.), Principles of psychophysiology: Physical, social, and inferential elements (pp. 661-707). New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

Losch, M. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1990). Cognitive dissonance may enhance sympathetic tonus, but attitudes are changed to reduce negative affect rather than arousal. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 26, 289-304.

 

Marshall-Goodell, B. S., Tassinary, L. G., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1990). Principles of bioelectrical measurement. In J. T. Cacioppo and L. G. Tassinary (Eds.), Principles of psychophysiology: Physical, social, and inferential elements (pp. 113-148). New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1990). Involvement and persuasion: Tradition versus integration. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 367-374.

 

Tassinary, L. G., Geen, T. R., Cacioppo, J. T., & Edelberg, R. (1990). Issues in biometrics: Offset potentials and the electrical stability of Ag/AgCl electrodes. Psychophysiology, 27, 236-242.
 

1989

 

Cacioppo, J.T. (1989). Essays on psychosomatics: Back to the future? Book review of Psychosomatic medicine: Past and future by G. N. Christodoulou (Ed.). Contemporary Psychology, 34, 589-590.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Andersen, B. L., Turnquist, D. C., & Tassinary, L. G. (1989). Psychophysiological comparison theory: On the experience, description, and assessment of signs and symptoms. Patient Education and Counseling, 13, 257-270.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., & Petty, R. E. (1989). Effects of message repetition on argument processing, recall, and persuasion. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 10, 3-12.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., & Petty, R. E. (1989). The elaboration likelihood model: The role of affect and affect-laden information processing in persuasion. In A. Tybout and P. Caferata (Eds.), Cognitive and affective responses to advertising (pp. 69-89). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Petty, R. E., & Geen, T. R. (1989). Attitude structure and function: From the tripartite to the homeostasis model of attitudes. In A. R. Pratkanis, S. J. Breckler, & A. G. Greenwald (Eds.), Attitude structure and function (pp. 275-310). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Petty, R. E., & Tassinary, L. G. (1989). Social psychophysiology: A new look. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 22, 39-91.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., & Tassinary, L. G. (1989). The concept of attitudes: A psychophysiological analysis. In H. L. Wagner & A. S. R. Manstead (Eds.), Handbook of social psychophysiology (pp. 309-346). Chichester: Wiley.

 

Tassinary, L. G., Cacioppo, J. T., & Geen, T. R. (1989). A psychometric study of surface electrode placements for facial electromyographic recording: I. The brow and cheek muscle regions. Psychophysiology, 26, 1-16.

 

Tassinary, L. G., Geen, T. R., Cacioppo, J. T., & Swartzbaugh, R. (1989). Born of animal magnetism: 150 Years of psycho-physiology. Psychophysiology, 26, 713-715. 

 

1988

Cacioppo, J. T., Marshall-Goodell, B. S., Tassinary, L. G., Chen, F., Siegel, S. J., & Dorfman, D. D. (1988). Waveform moment analysis: An ASYST program for topographical analyses of nonnegative bounded waveforms. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 20, 517-527.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Martzke, J. S., Petty, R. E., & Tassinary, L. G. (1988). Specific forms of facial EMG response index emotions during an interview: From Darwin to the continuous flow hypothesis of affect-laden information processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 592-604.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Petty, R. E., & Andersen, B. L. (1988). Social psychophysiology as a paradigm. In H. L. Wagner (Ed.), Social psychophysiology and emotion: Theory and clinical applications (pp. 273-294). London: Wiley.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Petty, R. E., & Tassinary, L. G. (1988). Communication, social cognition, and affect: A psychophysiological approach. In L. Donohew, H. E. Sypher, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Communication, social cognition, and affect (pp. 219-245). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

 

Haugtvedt, C., Petty, R. E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Steidley, T. (1988). Personality and ad effectiveness: Exploring the utility of need for cognition. Advances in Consumer Research, 15, 209-212.

 

Petty, R. E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Kasmer, J. (1988). The role of affect in the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. In L. Donohew, H. E. Sypher, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Communication, social cognition, and affect (pp. 117-146). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

 

Petty, R. E., Cacioppo, J. T., Sedikedes, C., & Strathman, A. (1988). Affect and persuasion: A contemporary perspective. American Behavioral Scientist, 31, 355-371.

 

1987

 

Cacioppo, J. T. (1987). Book review of Electromyography for experimentalists by G. E. Loeb & C. Gans. Biological Psychology, 25, 199-201.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., & Dorfman, D. D. (1987). Waveform moment analysis in psychophysiological research. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 421-438.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., & Petty, R. E. (1987). Stalking rudimentary processes of social influence: A psychophysiological approach. In M.P. Zanna, J. M. Olson, & C. P. Herman (Eds.), Social influence: The Ontario symposium (Volume 5, pp. 41-74). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Tassinary, L. G., Stonebraker, T. B., & Petty, R. E. (1987). Self-report and cardiovascular measures of arousal: Fractionation during residual arousal. Biological Psychology, 25, 135-151.
 

Martzke, J. S., Andersen, B. L., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1987). Cognitive assessment of anxiety disorders. In L. Michelson & M. Ascher (Eds.), Cognitive-behavioral assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders (pp. 62-88). New York: Guilford Press.

 

Petty, R. E., Cacioppo, J. T., Kasmer, J. A., & Haugtvedt, C. P. (1987). A reply to Stiff and Boster. Communications Monographs, 54, 257-263.Petty, R. E., Kasmer, J. A., Haugtvedt, C. P., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1987). Source and message factors in persuasion: A reply to Stiff's critique of the elaboration likelihood model. Communications Monographs, 54, 233-249.

 

Petty, R. E., Rennier, G. A., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1987). Assertion versus interrogation format in opinion surveys: Questions enhance thoughtful responding. Public Opinion Quarterly, 51, 481-494.

 

1986

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Andersen, B. L., Turnquist, D.C., & Petty, R. E. (1986). Psychophysiological comparison processes: Interpreting cancer symptoms. In B. L. Andersen (Ed.), Women with cancer: Psychological perspectives (pp. 141-171). New York: Springer-Verlag.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Losch, M. L., Tassinary, L. G., & Petty, R. E. (1986). Properties of affect and affect-laden information processing as viewed through the facial response system. In R. A. Peterson, W. D. Hoyer, & W. R. Wilson (Eds.), The role of affect in consumer behavior: Emerging theories and applications (pp. 87-118). Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., & Petty, R. E. (1986). Social processes. In M. G. H. Coles, E. Donchin, & S. Porges (Eds.), Psychophysiology: Systems, processes, and applications (pp. 646-679). New York: Guilford Press.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Petty, R. E., Kao, C. F., & Rodriguez, R. (1986). Central and peripheral routes to persuasion: An individual difference perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1032-1043.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Petty, R. E., & Losch, M. E. (1986). Attributions of responsibility for helping and doing harm: Evidence for confusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 100-105.

 

Cacioppo, J. T., Petty, R. E., Losch, M. E., & Kim, H. S. (1986). Electromyographic activity over facial muscle regions can differentiate the valence and intensity of affective reactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 260-268.

 

Fridlund, A. J., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986). Guidelines for human electromyographic research. Psychophysiology, 23, 567-589.

 

Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986). Communication and persuasion: Central and peripheral routes to attitude change. New York: Springer-Verlag.

 

Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986). The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 19, 123-205.

 

 

 

 

 

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